With the state owned Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Limited (GSPC) carrying out multiple Hydro Fracturing (HF) process in the Deen Dayal West Field (DDW) located in the East coast of Andhra Pradesh, experts estimate an initial yield of around 50 million standard cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd), the company stated.
Developed by GSPC at a depth of 5000 metres below the sea bed, wells drilled in DDW fall in the high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) category with temperature of 400 degree Fahrenheit and pressure of 12000 PSI.
Hydraulic fracturing, also known as Hydrofracturing or Hydrofracking, is a well-stimulation technique in which the well-rock is fractured by a pressurised liquid. The process involves high-pressure injection of 'Fracking Fluid' (primarily water, containing sand or other proppants carried with the aid of viscous fluid) into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations, through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely. When the hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, small grains of hydraulic fracturing proppants (either sand or aluminium oxide) hold the fractures open.
GSPC has carried out four stages of HF successfully in one of the wells and could pump more than 300,000 pounds of proppants in two of the HF zones as planned. After cleanup, the well is likely to be put under production in the first week of May 2016.
According to GSPC, the company has to use a pressure of 13000 PSI (approximately 900 times more than the atmospheric pressure) and 300,000 pounds of proppant for each zone to be fractured. Moreover, multiple HF in HPHT and Offshore environment at a depth of 5000 Meters below sea bed is first of its kind in India and may be in global scenario, GSPC claimed. Meanwhile, GSPC employed international HF firms like Haliburton, Barry & Associates, E-Frac and Xodus for the process, the company informed.